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Cruciate Surgery

Cruciate ligament surgery in dogs or dog knee surgery

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8xHbjwcrwk

CANINE CRUCIATE LIGAMENT SURGERY :
 
old and new techniques, grafts, sutures, TPLO's and
 
osteotomies.
 
When your dog ruptures a cranial cruciate ligament, we believe that the best surgical treatment is to replace the torn ligament with a new one.  This should not be confused with other techniques which do not accurately replace the original torn ligament with a new one inserted into the position where the original one was located.  This is the same principle as is used in human surgery.
 
Dr Paul Manning of Astonlee Veterinary Practice and Animal Hospital is a very experienced surgeon, and has a wide range of skills to offer our animal patients.
 
Cruciate ligament, or dog knee problems are the commonest orthopaedic condition in dogs, and Paul has taken a very keen interest in this ever since being taught by the late Col Hickman (a very well respected surgeon) at the Cambridge Vet School in 1978. It is commonly said at vet conferences and stated in most current vet textbooks that ‘there is no one surgical method that is better than any other’. For many, this means that the surgical techniques have not been advanced very much since cruciate surgery was first pioneered by a Finnish vet (Paatsama) in 1952.
 
Paatsama invented the idea of drilling two bone tunnels, one through the femur and one in the tibia, through which he threaded a piece if tissue to replace the ruptured cruciate ligament. The principle of this technique has stood the test of many years, and Paatsama is still honoured to this day by having his name attached to an international award given to the vet surgeon who has been considered to have given the most to the field of orthopaedics in any given year.
 
Prof Vaughan at the Royal Veterinary College achieved a very high level of success with the Paatsama technique, modified to use skin as the graft material rather than fascia (grissle), achieving success in 28 out of 30 cases in a series studied over a period of 1 year.
 
In 1994, a new technique was invented by a vet in the USA Barclay Slocum called the TPLO (Tibial Plateau Levelling Operation). This technique was claimed to have merits because it did not introduce foreign material into the joint of the dog. It was based on the principle that sawing the tibia and rotating it, fixing the then broken bone with a large plate and screws, would help to prevent the sliding of the unstable joint with the ruptured cruciate. However, in this technique, there was no replacement of the ruptured ligament as with the graft technique, and the joint was only stable in one position of the gait at full extension of the leg. This technique has been followed by many vets and veterinary specialists around the world, including the UK, ever since……except by Dr Paul.
 
Dr Paul studied the technique using the skin graft over a period of 15 years, following cases in many breeds of dog, some for over 10 years, and over 50% of the cases were followed for more than 2 years. Measuring the success rate by simply assessing whether the dogs were a)slightly lame, b) slightly lame, c) severely lame; the success rate achieved was 96% returned to zero lameness, only 2 returned to ‘slight lameness’, and only 2 failed but for reasons of being severely obese or aged.
 
Dr Paul is very keen to restore as many dogs to normal lives as possible through cruciate ligament surgery in dogs, believing in the audited results, so if your dog has a problem with a hindleg, it might be a cruciate ligament problem so make an appointment to see Dr Paul. Paul is also very happy to see cases from clients of other practices by referral from their veterinary surgeon.
 
Dr Paul R. Manning, MA, VetMB, MSc (VetGP), DProf, MRCVS

Commonly asked questions about cruciate ligament surgery

What is the likely success rate with your operation in your hands?

96% return to ‘normal’; ie : the walking/running capabilities the dog had before the rupture of the cruciate ligament. 2% chance of being slightly lame. 2% failure rate.

What are the treatment choices for my dog?

Extracapsular suture
Intracapsular techniques with use of grafts
Bone sawing/osteotomy techniques.

 

Some dog owners have been slightly confused about the difference between the extracapsular suture and the intracapsular technique, whereas the bone sawing is more self explanatory.  The extracapsular techniques involve the placement of a suture, often of nylon or sometimes a new and stronger material that is also better in terms of tying more secure knots, outside the stifle joint to mimic the biomechanics of the original undamaged stifle joint.  The intracapsular techniques involve the placement of a suture or graft through bone tunnels across the inside of the joint, replicating the position of the old damaged cranial cruciate ligament.  The two techniques are therefore very different.  It is more difficult to place the graft accurately across the middle of the joint than it is to place a suture outside of the joint, but the stability achievable by the intracapsular graft can be significantly better than the extracapsular suture, and arguably more reliable.  Lateral sutures can be suitable for small dogs less than 15kg in bodyweight, but in larger dogs there is quite a tendency for the lateral suture of commonly used nylon to stretch or break and the effectiveness can be lost, whereas the study in the vets' section on this website shows something of the reliability of the skin graft technique.

 Why do you choose your skin graft technique?

It has a very long track record, the principles of the technique having been invented in Finland in 1952 with modifications since, and I have audited the results of my clinical cases in 100 dogs of many breeds and sizes and ages over a 15 year period (see vets section on this website)

I choose skin as my preferred graft because published papers in the 1960’s and 70’s showed it was better than nylon or fascia (Vaughan 1966 at the Royal Veterinary College).

No other technique replaces the ruptured cruciate ligament in the position in which it achieves re stabilisation of the stifle joint, which I believe is essential to the restoration of normal function in the long term.

Sawing the bone without replacing the ruptured ligament seems to me like an idea that no human patients would contemplate for themselves, so why would they think of doing it for their dogs?

Premiership footballers (humans) have their cruciate ligaments repaired using tunnel and graft techniques, and they can still be playing in the same League 10 years later.

Have a look at this website which illustrates how the surgeons approach the problem in humans:

http://www.biomet.com/patients/sportsMedicine/aclProcedure.cfm

This site considers the choice in types of graft for human surgery:

http://www.orthoassociates.com/SP11B35/ 

What are the costs of each choice of procedure?

Using a skin graft with 2 bone tunnels in my chosen technique costs between £1000 and £2000,depending on size of dog and complexity of the particular case.   This is an all inclusive price including the x rays, anaesthetics, post operative medication.

Extracapsular suture is likely to cost about £1000.

Bone sawing/osteotomy techniques commonly cost in the region of £4000.

 

What is the potential for things to go wrong?

My results show that there is only a 2% chance of the operation ‘failing’ which has been judged by myself and my clients in that the operation has failed to restore the leg to normal function with the ability to play, walk and run. When the operation has failed, it is usually within the first 3 months after the operation when perhaps the skin graft has not healed properly or the graft itself failed, or the dog has exercised too violently before the end of the strict 3 months post op period of ‘strict lead exercise only’.

This compares to published results for bone sawing techniques where the quite serious complication rates can be in the range 8% to as high as 25%.

If the operation does fail, what can be done about it?

In the small number of cases where the operation has failed, one was a very old Yorkshire Terrier so it was decided that the old dog should have a choice and not go through another operation, and he was happy to potter around with a limp for his last year or so.

The procedure does not alter the alignment of the leg (bone osteotomy techniques do), and the situation in a failed operation using the tunnel and graft techniques is almost the same as it was before the operation was carried out.

It is a relatively uncomplicated procedure to repeat the operation and insert another skin graft, which is highly likely to succeed.  I have done this in 2 cases over a thirty year period in which there was a postoperative infection 1 month after the operation, and the second operation in both cases was successful.

This compares to very serious potential complications with bone sawing techniques where there have been failures of the stainless steel plates and/or screws, and the potential for arthritis to develop seems to be much higher with the bone sawing which is a much more aggressive technique than using a skin graft.

The costs of attending to the 1% minor complications and 0.5% major complications with the skin graft technique in my hands is very small in my hands, perhaps a few hundred pounds if the need arises.  However, the costs of correcting complications from the bone sawing operations used elsewhere can amount to many thousands of pounds as I have discovered from telephone calls and meeting clients who have experienced this.  The worst cost in 3 cases reported to me by dog owners was that 3 different dog owners spent £25,000 on cruciate surgeries for their individual dogs, the costs being made up of between £4,000 and £6,500 for each of a series of 3-4 operations starting with one TPLO and then re-operating to deal with complications afterwards.

With the graft technique using full thickness skin as I do, the complications I have seen have included minor cyst formation under the skin where a cyst forms in the end of the skin graft.  This has been reported by Prof Vaughan in 1960's, and is easily remedied by simply excising the cyst under a general anaesthetic, but some of these do not require surgery and can be left alone.  Very rarely, (about 2 cases in the past 30+ years), an infection can occur in the joint after the operation, and this can cause the graft to fail.  In two cases that I have seen this happen, I have re-operated on them (one GSD and one Mastiff), flushed out and debrided the joint thoroughly, removed the old graft and inserted a new one, provided one month on two antibiotics (Synulox and Antirobe), and instructed the owners to give 3 months' lead exercise.  In both of these cases a full recovery was made and the costs I kept to £500 for each owner (true at June 2013).  One dog had severe obesity and ruptured the skin graft as reported in my case report in the vets' section of this website, and a couple of Yorkshire Terriers have had a rupture of the graft which I believe was because the skin in those particular dogs was weak.  In one of the two Yorkies seen over 30+ years who had this problem, I repeated the operation and supported the procedure with an extracapsular suture which worked well.

Current research at Astonlee on complications with cruciate surgeryis looking into the finding that in the very few cases where the graft fails, it appears to be due to infection, with occasional lapses of the dog owner to find their dog failing to follow the instruction of ‘strict lead exercise for 3 months after the operation.’  Infection is the most serious complication, and at 0.5% at Astonlee this compares very well with other published reports of 7% and more in other veterinary facilities.  Many published reports of complication rates for TPLO report that 7% is due to infection with the remainder due to other reasons.  Until August of 2013, I had not had a case where I inserted a skin graft where the infection was a cause of a major complication that could not easily be resolved.  That case was a 73kg Newfoundland dog where there seemed to be an infection developing in the distal bone tunnel, because the proximal bone tunnel had the skin graft firmly locked into position 4 weeks after the operation as identified at the time of remedial surgery, whereas in the distal bone tunnel the graft had not securely locked in.

The case of the Mastiff mentioned above was also due to infection, as was the German Shepherd, and in both of these two cases the graft failed 1 month after the surgery, having both been making excellent progress immediately after the first operation.  The Mastiff didn’t do as well as the GSD in the first month, but after each dog had been re-operated on, antibiotics given for a longer course because the infection was identified with the presence of swelling and discoloured fluid, both dogs made excellent recoveries.

 

These 3 cases in which failure occurred due to infection were all referrals from outside the area of Astonlee, and may have had problems due to their environment.  The GSD was a working dog which was initially uncontrolled by the owner, and was working in dirty conditions.  The Mastiff was daily playing in a horse yard where there was lots of horse manure around.  The Newfoundland was a very clean dog, but had as Newfoundland dogs do have very long fur, and there may have been some infection in the skin.  In the Newfoundland, detailed follow up has not been available, and although the dog was doing very well until 3 months after the operation, a problem seemed to occur when an unfortunate incident occurred when another big dog caused the Newfoundland to jump and twist the operated leg badly.

Every aseptic precaution is taken at Astonlee where we have high standards of hygiene.  However, if the infection is carried in with the dog, that could be a reason why we have experienced a few complications.  We are looking into the possibilities of examining and shaving the dogs 2 weeks before surgery especially in the case of long haired breeds where we cannot see the skin otherwise before carrying out the surgery.  Another consideration is whether to change the antibiotic procedures to have a pre-operative examination and swab to culture from the skin before going ahead with the surgical procedure.  Another consideration is whether or not to change the antibiotic in routine use from potentiated amoxicillin (Synulox) to cephalexin or other choice of antibiotic to combat what in some cases could be antibiotic resistance by the bacteria on the skin.  This point could apply to any choice of surgical procedure.  Another point to consider is whether or not the dog has any underlying or even apparent skin infection with any red spots for example at the time when surgery is being considered, planned or carried out.

In human surgery, the choice of grafts is normally a tendon graft which will have no exposure to the outside of the body as in the choice of skin.  Breakdown and complications due to implants of various types, including the plates and screws used in TPLO’s for example (which is well documented in published papers), can occur, so the issue is not confined to the use of skin.  In human surgery, national audits are carried out to study the cost effectiveness of various types of orthopaedic surgery including knee and hip surgeries.  We have not got this level of research in veterinary work, but at Astonlee we are working to try to make some progress in this important area.

It is very interesting that the numbers of cases at Astonlee where post-operative infections have occurred seem to be very low indeed compared to other published works in different veterinary centres, in spite of the fact that at Astonlee the technique actually involves embedding a full thickness skin graft into the joint through 2 bone tunnels.  It could be that the standard of aseptic technique is critically important, and the detail of those procedures is where to find the solution to minimise or eliminate the problem.

 

References.

Patient outcome evaluation.

Appleby,J., Poteliakhoff,E., Shah,K., Devlin, N. (2013) Using patient-reported outcome measures to estimate cost-effectiveness of hip replacements in English hospitals.  JRSM 106(8) 323-331.

Manning, P. (2011) Evaluation of clinical outcomes in cruciate surgery in dogs.  Series of 4 articles with a questionnaire.  Vet Times.

Reid, J., Wiseman-Orr, M.L., Scott, E.M., Nolan, A.M.  (2013) Development, validation and reliability of a web-based questionnaire to measure health-related quality of life in dogs.  JSAP 54, 227-233.

Sabharwal, S., Patel, V., Nijjer, S., Kirresh, A., Darzi, A., Chambers, J.C., Malik, I., Kooner, J.S., Athanasiou, T. (2013)  Guidelines in cardiac clinical practice : evaluation of their methodological quality using the AGREE 11 instrument.  JRSM 106(8) 315-322.

Silverman, David.  (2001)   Interpreting qualitative data.  Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction.    Sage Publications .

Failure rates in humans and dogs with various types of cruciate surgery.

 

Cook,J.L., Luther, J.K., Beetem, J., Cook, C.R. (2010) Clinical comparison of a novel extracapsular stabilisation procedure and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs.  Veterinary Surghery 39(3), 315-323.

Fitzpatrick,N., Solano,M.A. (2010) Predictive variables for complications after TPLO with stifle inspection by arthrotomy in 1000 consecutive dogs.  Veterinary Surgery 39 (4), 460-474.

Gatineau,M., Dupuis,J., Plante,J., Moreau,M (2011) Retrospective study of 476 TPLO procedures : rate of subsequent pivot shift, meniscal tear and other complications.  VCOT 24(5) 333-341.

Van Eck et al (2012) Prospective analysis of failure rate and predictors of failure after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with allograft.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 40, (4) 800-807.

Priddy, N.H., Tomlinson, J.L., Dodam. J.R., Hornbostel. J.E.  (2003)  Complications with and owner assessment of the outcome of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs : 193 cases (1997-2001).  JAVMA 222; 1726-1732.

 

Robbe, R., Paletta, G.A. (2004) Soft-Tissue graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  Op. Tech. Sp. Med; 12(3): 188-194.

Author, cruciate technique and date

Major complications

Minor complications

Case numbers

Length of time of study and follow up of cases

Van Eck, human allograft.  Case series evidence level 4. Published 2012

13%

 

206 humans

2 years.  2007-2009

Gatineau, TPLO, 2011. Client and clinician questionnaires

4.2%

5.5%

476

Median follow up 9.5months

Fitzpatrick,N., Solano,M.A. (2010) TPLO.  Case series.

6.6%

8.2%

1000

5 years. 2004-2009.

Cook, TPLO compared to extracapsular TR (tightrope) suture, 2010.  Case series, client questionnaires.

TR=12.5%

TPLO=£17.4%

 

47

6 months.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manning, Paul, dog, skin graft, case series, not published but series of 100 cases available on this website

0.5%

1%

300+ dogs.

1988-2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


What are the chances that the opposite leg will need surgery?

My results with my technique show that there is about a 10% chance that the opposite leg will need surgery for the same problem.

This compares to most other published results where the chances range from a minimum of about 50% to 80% chance.

How long have you been using your technique?

Since I qualified in 1979 from Cambridge University where I was taught how to do it.

If you have a question that is not answered above, please contact me and I will try to answer it for you.

How do vets and clients ulimately make their decision to recommend or choose a particular surgical technique for a surgical correction of a ruptured cruciate ligament?

The late Professor Leslie Vaughan at the Royal Veterinary College told me he always got excellent results with the tunnel and skin graft technique, so before he died I was privileged to ask him 'why did you choose to change your technique?'  His reply was 'simply because of fashion.'

There is an increasing interest in evidence based medicine (EBM) whereby vets have tended to start looking more earnestly and critically at the evidence for choosing a particular technique or surgeon, and what facilities might be best for the patient.  There is little published evidence suitable for making comparisons between techniques, and a key reason why comparisons have not been made has been a lack of recognition of a research instrument or method that can consistently demonstrate the outcome evaluation.  I have been doing a piece of research looking into what the profession considers the best and most practical outcome measure to be, by using a questionnaire.  I am also interested in having dog owning clients fill in this questionnaire to get their views on how they evaluate the success or otherwise of the surgery for themselves.  If you would like to participate in this survey, please email your request for a questionnaire and one will be forwarded to you (email : admin@astonlee.co.uk  ref : cruciate questionnaire attention Paul Manning).  Alternatively you can copy and paste the questionnaire below.

 

By doing this research I hope to be able to produce what is called in the jargon a 'Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) instrument which is widely accepted'.  With this development should come a greater critical awareness of the different surgical options available, which I hope will help to deliver better and better patient care for the future.

How quickly after the dog has suffered the cruciate ligament rupture should the surgery be done?

There are some conflicting thoughts on this because the aim of different surgical techniques varies in the degree of stability the choice of operation will achieve.  The results I have seen from my own surgeries include many dogs who have waited from 7 days to up to 2 years before having their operation.  Sometimes the reason for the delay has been a need to give a few days' notice to book the dog in for the surgery, to the reason that a client may have had to save up for the operation over a period in excess of 6 months, and some clients have eventually found their way to my surgery after hesitating from between 1 and 2 years under the care of a vet who may have been less positive about the potential outcome or may have had reservations about operating at a senior age of a dog for example.  In all of these cases, the outcome has been excellent and still within the 96% success rate reported in the vets section of this website.

So the answer to this question is that whilst surgery should not ideally be delayed more than 2-3 weeks because instability can cause early onset of arthritis, there does not appear to be any deleterious effect by delaying 2-3 weeks.  This is important because some clients have made arrangements to go on holiday or go to an event that has been planned a long way in advance, and it is useful to know that a short delay does not appear to affect the outcome.  It should be stressed that cruciate surgery is definitely not an emergency situation requiring immediate attention.

 Will my dog have to be in a plaster cast, cage rested, and any other constraints during the recovery after the operation?

With the technique I use (a skin graft and two bone tunnels) the main instruction for dog owners is to keep the dog on a lead for exercise for 3 months after the operation.  There is no need to keep the dog in a cage and I encourage owners to walk their dogs starting with a hundred yards in the first 2 days, and gradually increasing to 3 or miles a day towards the last month of the recovery period which is normally 3 months.  There is no plaster cast or bandage.

This contrasts to dogs which have the TPLO or some other bone sawing techniques where the advice frequently given is to cage rest the dog for 6 weeks after the operation to allow time for the elected osteotomy to heal with the plate and screws in place.

The other point here is that there ius evidence from my own work (see vets section on this website) that replacing the torn ligament with a graft can restore joint stability with a very high success rate as measured by the reduction and elimination or minimising of the cranial drawer and the restoration of limb function  In the technique chosen by many vets to use TPLO and/or other osteotomy procedures, there is no agreement on what the reconstruicted joint and bone alignement should look like.  This is a critically important point in my view because the aim of the surgery needs to be clear in order to maximise the chances of success.  The key questiuon for those advocating the TPLO is how many millimeters should the angle of the tibial plateau be in any given breed, age and weight of dog?  Secondly, how is it possiblt to know that the angle created immediately after surgery will remain the same over the passage of years when some bone remodelling and potentially some osteoarthritis develps?  These are very difficult questions to answer because it is argued that every dog is different, but then it should be possible to calculate the angle for any given dog from principles, but there is no wide agreement on this in the veterinary community.

On the other hand, using the graft technique that I use, the key question is what should the cranial drawer movement be when the surgery is completed?  That is easy to answer : it should and can be 0mm.  In some cases which have a huge cranial drawer movement before the surgery, I have found that the clinical outcome cvan be equally as good if the cranial drawer is reduced to within the range 0mm to 1mm. 

 

I have heard that grafts are not favoured by many vets in larger dogs because of a fear of failure of the graft, and that is why many vets recommend the TPLO or other bone sawing techniques?

 

The evidence from my results over the past 30 odd years (see vets' section on this website) is that the same technique of using 2 bone tunnels and a full thickness skin graft works equally well in a wide range of breeds, bodyweights and ages of dog from the tiny Yorkshire Terrier right up to the Giant breed such as the Great Dane.  The photo on this website of a skin graft which was placed in a large labrador 8 years before he reached the end of his natural life at age 15 years illustrates the survival and integrity of the graft many years after the surgery.  The science of transplantation medicine is a fascinating one, and there are many examples in human medicine where organs and tissues have been used to replace damaged or diseased structures.  One of the points that has attracted me to this skin graft technique is that it offers the patient the chance of a restoration of the original ligament with a natural graft which can restore and replace the torn ligament, and survive in the body without risk of any mechanical failure from insertions of metallic or other non biological materials.

Additional reading can be done by visiting our Vets section , and our 'client testimonials' section.

 

Clinical decision making in canine cruciate surgery.

 

 Whilst I tend to feel that the best overall surgical method to treat ruptured cranial cruciate ligament is by replacing it with a graft (as the human surgeons also prefer), there are quite a number of factors that need to be considered before choosing to operate.  ‘First do no harm’ is a rule that I adhere to from my perspective and belief that the best way is to preserve, protect and restore the joint to the normal function present before the problem occurred.  I differ from many other surgeons in believing that for the vast majority of dogs, their hind limbs can function very well, without altering the structure or conformation of the limb.  Indeed, for many dogs they have functioned very well for a large proportion of their lives before a problem occurred, so the existing anatomy of their joints appears to have served them well.  I do not believe there is any proven, and well evaluated study to show that altering the anatomy of the stifle joint has any benefits over and above the use of the more traditional graft techniques.  Admittedly it would be very difficult and would take a long time and a lot of work to obtain the data to analyse the different conformations of at least some of the main breeds of dog affected, but it is ethically important to do this if such an invasive procedure is being considered, together with a study of the proven altered anatomies following surgical intervention.  Also the complication rates being too high is another reason which does not justify their use in my opinion.  (Bergh and Peirone, 2012)

 

Some clients are understandably a bit nervous about having surgery on their dog at all, but I believe if the function is evaluated and discussed carefully between vet and dog owner, a plan can be made to restore the joint in the vast majority of cases.

 

Having spent this time working with cruciate problems, I have found that for many, the surgical option with a graft is the best one.  In choosing to operate, the diagnosis needs to be accurate, and that is best by using the physical examination for the cranial drawer which indicates a looseness in the stifle joint specifically due to rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament.  Sometimes there is swelling and lameness, but the ligament proves to be intact, so in these cases surgery is not indicated in my opinion.  

 

The important question when considering the best course of action is 'is the ligament torn or not, and is the limb functional or not?' If surgery is the choice made after a period of conservative management, it is good to have seen what level of activity can be achieved without surgery first. I have found that in some dogs the instability is tiny with hardly any lameness present, some have a tiny instability with severe lameness that has been corrected fully with replacement of the confirmed ruptured cruciate ligament, and some are only moderately lame with massive instability also corrected by a replacement graft.   The writer on this website (www.tiggerpoz.com ) airs some concerns about choosing to operate when it might not be necessary. 

 

I believe that the best material for the purpose is the dog’s own skin. Part of the evidence for the survival of the skin graft long term is on my website (vets section) in a picture of the microscopic appearance of the graft in a stifle joint of a 15 year old Labrador in which I placed the skin graft 8 years earlier. The owner kindly agreed for me to do a post mortem because she was so pleased with the outcome for her dog and wanted to be able to share this information with other dog owners.  Prof Vaughan studied differences between grafts of skin, fascia lata and nylon in 1966, and found that skin was the best.

 

Two commercial companies have been exploring the use and development of artificial grafts for the re-stabilisation of the stifle following cruciate rupture.  Arthrex have developed fibrewire, and Vetlig have been looking at some different types of artificial graft.  However, in human surgery the body of opinion is a move away from artificial grafts to natural autografts of patella tendon or hamstring due to concerns and findings of breakdown or rubbing of the bone tunnels which can become wider and render the graft ineffective over time.  Natural grafts can become strong and re-vascularised, and last a long time, and are able to form a unique part of the natural joint in its restoration.

 

The evidence that is required to produce the high grade research papers that would be considered stronger evidence in the peer reviewed literature is prevented from becoming reality because there is no widely agreed method of evaluating the outcome of the cruciate surgery. If this was agreed, as it is in human surgery (although still with lots of on-going debate;eg: the IKDC system which you can Google), it would be possible to collect vastly more cases to pool together from around the world to produce an evaluation and comparison with much greater statistical power. I attach a couple of questionnaires that I have designed and have been using to capture data from vets and clients evaluating the clinical outcomes. I would be interested in your opinions and thoughts on these, especially if and when you choose to have surgery on your dog. If you would fill in the questionnaire and forward it to me that would be much appreciated as I am gathering the opinions of dog owners.

 

I hope to be able to cultivate this body of data by encouraging dog owners and vets to contribute to the debate, research and discussion using the questionnaires and feedback.

 

The evidence that I have produced on my own website is the best I have been able to produce. However, the data is from real cases and 100 of them followed over 15 years. The biggest problem I have is that most vets do not believe the results, but as clients have been involved in the evaluation as well as myself, many clients empathise with the results because they represent their peer group. I also believe that ultimately the clients are the best judge of the outcome because they are observing their dogs for many hours each day in their daily activities, often for many years before and after the surgery, and clients can see if their dogs can return to the agility competitions, running 10 kilometres a day with the owner, and other activities, and that to me sounds like the best way of evaluating the outcomes. Clients who have chosen me to operate on their dogs have testified to this return to normal activity after the surgery.

 

Some clients have challenged me to operate when the dog was only slightly lame and only intermittently, with hardly any instability detected by the cranial drawer test. This needs very careful consideration before deciding to do the surgery because clinically the challenge for the surgeon is to improve the situation and not make it worse, but also different clients have different perceptions of the need for surgery in their particular dog. No surgery is 100%, so if the problem is small, it's best to take special care with the decision. Not every dog that is slightly lame due to a partial cruciate tear or injury will go badly lame later and some will function well, so I have found it sometimes pays not to be too hasty. On the other hand, some very large dogs like some Rottweillers can run into trouble if one leg is left and the opposite leg suffers a ruptured cruciate ligament at the same time. Some of these cases can be very challenging to operate and get the dog back on all 4 feet.

 

So the issues to consider can be complex, but over 30 years of experience can be helpful.

 

References: 

 

The Arthrex company, a maker of surgical equipment, developed a high-strength stifle stabilization procedure they call 'TightRope CCL'. Arthrex sells a 'TightRope' kit for surgeons.

 

http://www.arthrexvetsystems.com/int/mediacenter/upload/TR-CCL-WHITE-PAPER-2007.pdf

 

http://www.innovativeanimalproducts.com/pdf/TightRope%20CCL%20MultiSite%20Data%20Aug%2009.pdf

 

'Securos' is another company which makes surgical equipment and supplies. They call their high-strength stabilization procedure "Securos XGEN CCR" and sell a kit for surgeons to use in performing it. http://www.securos.com/downloads/XGEN%20CCR%20Manual.pdf 

 

www.vetlig.com    Cranial cruciate ligament is under clinical evaluation (Dec 2012). 

 

Aragon, C.L., Budsberg,S. (2005) Applications of Evidence-Based Medicine : Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injury Repair in the Dog.  Veterinary Surgery 34, 93-98.

Bergh, M.S., Peirone, B. (2012) Complications of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in dogs.  Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology(5)349-358..

Vaughan, L.C. (1963) A study of the replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog by fascia, skin and nylon. Veterinary Record 75, 537-541.

Vaughan, L.C. and Bowden,N.L.R.(1966) The use of skin for the replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog : A review of 30 cases. Journal of Small Animal Practice 5, 167-171.

Vaughan,L.C. and Scott, M.G.A.D. (1966) An experimental study of the fate of autografts of whole thickness skin used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament. Veterinary Record 79, 412-416.  

 

EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE : QUESTIONNAIRE ON EVALUATION OF LAMENESS AND SURGICAL OUTCOMES

This should only take 10 minutes of your time, and I am very grateful for your opinions.  Hopefully this will help to contribute to the improvement of outcomes for dogs who find themselves in need of surgery for cruciate ligament problems in the future.

About you. 

Please circle all that apply to you.  If you normally own a specific breed of dog, please write the name of the breed in the box provided:

 

 

Owned a pedigree dog

Never owner a dog which had a problem with a cruciate ligament

Owned a dog which had surgery for cruciate ligament problems

Dog owner

Owned a cross breed dog

Owned a dog with a cruciate ligament problem but did not have surgery

Owned more than 1 dog which had to have surgery for cruciate ligament problems

Owned a dog(s) 0-5yrs

 

Name of breed normally owned:

 

Owned a dog 5.1-10yrs

 

 

 

Owned a dog more than 10 yrs

 

Evaluation of lameness.

 

How important are the following parts of your assessment of dogs preceding and following cruciate surgery regardless of the

 chosen surgical technique?  Please put a tick in the box which most closely matches your answer, or circle

‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answer where indicated.

 

 

 

Not used at all (0)

Nor very important (1)

Important  (2)

Very important (3)

 

 

 

0

1

2

3

How important was your assessment as Dog Owner at the first consultation of your dog’s  lameness?

 

 

 

 

How important was your assessment as Dog Owner on the overall outcome/.lameness at the final post op examination?

 

 

 

 

I think I would have no doubt distinguishing between a) no lameness at the walk and run, b) slight lameness at walk and run; c) severe lameness at walk and run?

0

1

2

 

 3

 

Clinical audit of the surgical results is carried out and made available to you;ie: track record of the surgery is made available to you.

 

 

 

 

The evaluation of the lameness of the dog before and after the surgery is based on a simple scale such as zero, slight, severe lameness.

 

 

 

 

Your own evaluation and opinion about the lameness based on your observations as the dog owner.

 

 

 

 

Force plate analysis of the outcome : ie: a computerised method of measuring lameness without human observation.

 

 

 

 

The final outcome is assessed more than 6 months after the surgery.

 

 

 

 

The assessment includes a minimum of 6 criteria that are evaluated subjectively or objectively and recorded for analysis.

 

 

 

 

In evaluating lameness before cruciate surgery, as a dog owner I use the following parameters:

1.ability to run

 

 

 

 

2.ability to walk

 

 

 

 

3.  Ability or inability to put weight on the affected leg.

 

 

 

 

4. .ability to climb stairs

 

 

 

 

5. .ability to sit with legs in the normal position

 

 

 

 

6. .ability to get up in the mornings without difficulty

 

 

 

 

7. .ability to jump over small fences/objects

 

 

 

 

8. .ability to play ball

 

 

 

 

9. .ability to walk more than 2 miles without a problem

 

 

 

 

10.other?  Either: Yes there is another method of assessment or

No, there is no other method of assessment that I would expect to to be used in practice

(Please circle your answer)

10a.  If there is another method of assessing the outcome not mentioned here, how important do you consider it is?

Yes

No

--------

 

........

In evaluating lameness after cruciate surgery, as a dog owner I use the following parameters:

1.ability to run

 

 

 

 

2.ability to walk

 

 

 

 

3. Ability or inability to put weight on the affected leg.

 

 

 

 

4..ability to climb stairs

 

 

 

 

5..ability to sit with legs in the normal position

 

 

 

 

6..ability to get up in the mornings without difficulty

 

 

 

 

7..ability to jump over small fences/objects

 

 

 

 

8..ability to play ball

 

 

 

 

9..ability to walk more than 2 miles without a problem

 

 

 

 

10..  Ability to return to all the activities enjoyed before the cruciate injury/disease occurred for more than 1 year after the surgical operation.

 

 

….

….

11.Other.  Either : Yes I would expect another method of evaluation not mentioned here, or

No, I would not expect another method of evaluation to be used in practice.

(Please circle your answer)

Yes

No

 

 

11a.  If your answer to question 10 is ‘YES’,  how important do you think it is?

 

 

 

 

Decision making in cranial cruciate problems in the dog.

 

This second part of the survey is about how decisions are made by vets and clients in choosing a surgical technique for a dog

 with a cruciate rupture or disease.      Please circle your answer using the guide below;eg: 0 = disagree strongly, 3=agree strongly.

 

 

Guide for your answers

Cruciate ligament surgery in dogs : questionnaire for all interested people. Question:

Disagree strongly (0)

Or:

Yes

Or:

Simple number choice

disagree (1)

Agree (2)

Or:

No

Or:

Simple  choice

agree strongly (3)

 

 

 

Cruciate ligament surgery in dogs : questionnaire for all interested people. Question:  

0

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

3

1

I feel it is very important that the risk of complications that potentially could render the leg useless after the operation is considered.

0

1

2

 

 3

 

2

I place a high importance on the complete return to normal;ie: to the level of activity the dog had before the injury or disease was diagnosed.

0

1

2

 

 3

 

 

3

 

3a

I believe it is possible to achieve the level of success that returns the dog to ‘normal’;ie: whereby the dog can do all the activities enjoyed before the cruciate problem occurred, with a surgical technique.

I have seen at least one case where the vet and the client both agreed that the dog had returned to ‘normal’ for more than 2 years after the surgery took place.

0

 

 

Yes

1

2

 

 

N0

 3

 

4

I feel it is important for the vet to know the evidence base for the recommendation of the choice of cruciate surgery for the dog?  Ie: the vet has considered his/her own practice experience and studied published work

0

1

2

 

 3

 

5

I feel it is important for me that the vet illustrates with diagrams and/or models the reason for his/her selection of the surgical procedure?

0

1

2

 

 3

 

6

6b

The cost of an operation is one of the strong  influences on the choice of procedure.

If the dog is insured, the cost of the operation has no influence on the choice of surgical technique.  

0

0

1

1

2

2

 3

3

7

I feel it is very  important for me to know the relative success rates and complication rates before choosing the method of surgery for the dog.

0

1

2

 

 3

 

8

I feel it is important for me to know what will be able to be done in the event of a major complication, should one arise.

0

1

2

 

 3

 

9

I feel it is important to consider the likelihood of needing an operation for the same problem in the opposite leg when deciding on the choice of operation for the first leg.  (This can vary between individual  dogs and choices of surgical procedure).

0

1

2

3

 

10

 

B

C

D

 

E

F

 

G

 

H

 

I would  be prepared to share information between vet and client  about how the risk of infection will be minimised.

Are you aware of RCVS (Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons) Standards for veterinary practice?

Are you aware that there are different standards in veterinary practice?

Are you aware of the use of clinical audit in any organisations outside of veterinary practice?

 

Are you aware of any clinical audit being done by your veterinary practice?

Assuming checkups are included in the price, I feel very strongly that I need a minimum of 3 months checkups after the operation to ensure that the dog gets the best care.

I feel that the minimum period of time needed for me to see whether or not the long term outcome of the operation was successful is more than 6 months.

If the charges for checkups were extra, over and above the cost of the procedure, I think the post operative checkups would be discouraged

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

0

 

0

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

1

 No

 

No

No

No

 

No

2

.

2

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

3

 

3

 

11

How many people in your circle of family and friends, including staff at the veterinary practice or specialist centre, would help you to evaluate the recovery from lameness after the operation?

I feel that as the owner of the dog, my opinion contributes strongly to the evaluation of the outcome.

a) 0-2,

0

 

b) 3-5

1

c) 6-9,

2

d) >10

3

12

12.a.

I confirm that I am a dog owner.

If the answer to question 13 was ‘Yes’ :

How many hours in an average day would you, a family member or friend be with your dog?  A=0-6, b =6.1-12, c=12.1-18, d=18.1-24 hours.

Yes

 

a

 

 

b

No

 

c

 

 

 

d

 

13

Are there any questions that have not been asked that you would consider have a significant impact on your satisfaction with the operation?

Yes

 

No

 

14

If the answer to question 14 was ‘Yes’ how important to you was the question(s) that were not asked?

3.  Very important, 2 important, 1 not important, 0 of no consequence.

0

1

2

3

15

Name (optional)                                                             Email address (optional)

 

 

 

 

 

When completed, please post your questionnaire to : Dr Paul Manning, MA, VetMB, MSc(VetGP), DProf, MRCVS., Astonlee Veterinary Hospital, Tickford Street, Newport Pagnell, Bucks. MK16 9BA. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

Key question:

 

If cranial cruciate ligament surgery looks like the Howell philosophy incorporating the replacement of the torn ligament with a graft, why shouldn’t it look like this in the dog?

 

Reference:

 

 Kocher, M.S.,, Smith, J.T.,  Iversen,M.D.,  Brustowicz, K.,  Ogunwole, O.,  Andersen, J.,  Yoo, W.J.,  McFeeley, E.D.,  Andersen,A.F.,  Zurakowski, D.  (2011) Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of a Modified International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (Pedi-IKDC) in children with knee disorders.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 39 (5), 933-939.

 

 

 

   

Clinical decision making in canine cruciate surgery.

 

Whilst I tend to feel that the best overall surgical method to treat ruptured cranial cruciate ligament is by replacing it with a graft (as the human surgeons also prefer), there are quite a number of factors that need to be considered before choosing to operate.  ‘First do no harm’ is a rule that I adhere to from my perspective and belief that the best way is to preserve, protect and restore the joint to the normal function present before the problem occurred.  I differ from many other surgeons in believing that for the vast majority of dogs, their hind limbs can function very well, without altering the structure or conformation of the limb.

 

Some clients are understandably a bit nervous about having surgery on their dog at all, but I believe if the function is evaluated and discussed carefully between vet and dog owner, a plan can be made to restore the joint in the vast majority of cases.

 

Having spent this time working with cruciate problems, I have found that for many, the surgical option with a graft is the best one.  In choosing to operate, the diagnosis needs to be accurate, and that is best by using the physical examination for the cranial drawer which indicates a looseness in the stifle joint specifically due to rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament.  Sometimes there is swelling and lameness, but the ligament proves to be intact, so in these cases surgery is not indicated. 

 

The important question when considering the best course of action is 'is the ligament torn or not, and is the limb functional or not?' If surgery is the choice made after a period of conservative management, it is good to have seen what level of activity can be achieved without surgery first. I have found that in some dogs the instability is tiny with hardly any lameness present, some have a tiny instability with severe lameness that has been corrected fully with replacement of the confirmed ruptured cruciate ligament, and some are only moderately lame with massive instability also corrected by a replacement graft.   The writer on this website (www.tiggerpoz.com) airs some concerns about choosing to operate when it might not be necessary. 

 

 

I believe that the best material for the purpose is the dog’s own skin. Part of the evidence for the survival of the skin graft long term is on my website (vets section) in a picture of the microscopic appearance of the graft in a stifle joint of a 15 year old Labrador in which I placed the skin graft 8 years earlier. The owner kindly agreed for me to do a post mortem because she was so pleased with the outcome for her dog and wanted to be able to share this information with other dog owners.  Prof Vaughan studied differences between grafts of skin, fascia lata and nylon in 1966, and found that skin was the best.

 

Two commercial companies have been exploring the use and development of artificial grafts for the re-stabilisation of the stifle following cruciate rupture.  Arthrex have developed fibrewire, and Vetlig have been looking at some different types of artificial graft.  However, in human surgery the body of opinion is a move away from artificial grafts to natural autografts of patella tendon or hamstring due to concerns and findings of breakdown or rubbing of the bone tunnels which can become wider and render the graft ineffective over time.  Natural grafts can become strong and re-vascularised, and last a long time, and are able to form a unique part of the natural joint in its restoration.

 

 

The evidence that is required to produce the high grade research papers that would be considered stronger evidence in the peer reviewed literature is prevented from becoming reality because there is no widely agreed method of evaluating the outcome of the cruciate surgery. If this was agreed, as it is in human surgery (although still with lots of on-going debate;eg: the IKDC system which you can Google), it would be possible to collect vastly more cases to pool together from around the world to produce an evaluation and comparison with much greater statistical power. I attach a couple of questionnaires that I have designed and have been using to capture data from vets and clients evaluating the clinical outcomes. I would be interested in your opinions and thoughts on these, especially if and when you choose to have surgery on your dog. If you would fill in the questionnaire and forward it to me that would be much appreciated as I am gathering the opinions of dog owners.

I hope to be able to cultivate by encouraging dog owners and vets to contribute to the debate, research and discussion using the questionnaires and feedback.

The evidence that I have produced on my own website is the best I have been able to produce. However, the data is from real cases and 100 of them followed over 15 years. The biggest problem I have is that most vets do not believe the results, but as clients have been involved in the evaluation as well as myself, many clients empathise with the results because they represent their peer group. I also believe that ultimately the clients are the best judge of the outcome because they are observing their dogs for many hours each day in their daily activities, often for many years before and after the surgery, and clients can see if their dogs can return to the agility competitions, running 10 kilometers a day with the owner, and other activities, and that to me sounds like the best way of evaluating the outcomes. Clients who have chosen me to operate on their dogs have testified to this return to normal activity after the surgery.

 

 

Some clients have challenged me to operate when the dog was only slightly lame and only intermittently, with hardly any instability detected by the cranial drawer test. This needs very careful consideration before deciding to do the surgery because clinically the challenge for the surgeon is to improve the situation and not make it worse, but also different clients have different perceptions of the need for surgery in their particular dog. No surgery is 100%, so if the problem is small, it's best to take special care with the decision. Not every dog that is slightly lame due to a partial cruciate tear or injury will go badly lame later and some will function well, so I have found it sometimes pays not to be too hasty. On the other hand, some very large dogs like some Rottweillers can run into trouble if one leg is left and the opposite leg suffers a ruptured cruciate ligament at the same time. Some of these cases can be very challenging to operate and get the dog back on all 4 feet.

 

So the issues to consider can be complex, but over 30 years of experience can be helpful.

 

References:

 

The Arthrex company, a maker of surgical equipment, developed a high-strength stifle stabilization procedure they call'TightRope CCL'. Arthrex sells a 'TightRope' kit for surgeons.

http://www.arthrexvetsystems.com/int/mediacenter/upload/TR-CCL-WHITE-PAPER-2007.pdf

http://www.innovativeanimalproducts.com/pdf/TightRope%20CCL%20MultiSite%20Data%20Aug%2009.pdf

'Securos' is another company which makes surgical equipment and supplies. They call their high-strength stabilization procedure "Securos XGEN CCR" and sell a kit for surgeons to use in performing it.http://www.securos.com/downloads/XGEN%20CCR%20Manual.pdf

 

www.vetlig.com    Cranial cruciate ligament is under clinical evaluation (Dec 2012).

 

Aragon, C.L., Budsberg,S. (2005) Applications of Evidence-Based Medicine : Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injury Repair in the Dog.  Veterinary Surgery 34, 93-98.

Vaughan, L.C. (1963) A study of the replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog by fascia, skin and nylon. Veterinary Record 75, 537-541.

Vaughan, L.C. and Bowden,N.L.R.(1966) The use of skin for the replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog : A review of 30 cases. Journal of Small Animal Practice 5, 167-171.

Vaughan,L.C. and Scott, M.G.A.D. (1966) An experimental study of the fate of autografts of whole thickness skin used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament. Veterinary Record 79, 412-416.

 

 

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